Legal English – Peter’s Pills – Lesson 74 – Personal Representatives

Legal English for Notaries - By Federnotizie

Personal Representatives

Transcript:

What is a personal representative, and when do we use this term?

In the common law system when someone dies they can die testate (con valido testamento) or intestate (senza testamento o senza valido testamento). What they leave in inheritance is called an estate (asse ereditario).

A personal representative is an individual or institution responsible for administering the estate of a deceased person. The term encompasses (comprende) two main types of personal representatives, namely executors and administrators.

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Legal English – Peter’s Pills – Lesson 73 – Essential Elements of a Contract

Legal English for Notaries - By Federnotizie

Essential Elements of a Contract

Transcript:

Hello!

Please pay attention to the vocabulary used to define the essential elements of a contract in the UK.

Legal scholars agree that there are 5 essential elements of a contract in the UK. These are:

  1. Offer: A contract begins with one party making an offer to another, indicating a willingness (volontà) to enter into an agreement under certain terms;
  2. Acceptance: Acceptance of this offer must be clear and unambiguous, forming mutual assent (assenso reciproco) between the parties. Acceptance must mirror the offer and not be a counteroffer;
  3. Consideration (più o meno corrispettivo; più o meno sinallagma): Each party must provide something of value, whether it is goods, services, money, or a promise to do or refrain (astenersi) from doing something. This exchange of value distinguishes a contract from a gift or a unilateral promise. Consideration must be sufficient, but need not be adequate. It is legal to sell a Ferrari for £1,00;
  4. Intention: Both parties must intend for the agreement to have legal consequences and to create legal relationships. Social and domestic
    agreements generally lack (non hanno) this intention, but commercial agreements are presumed to have it unless proven otherwise;
  5. Capacity: Parties entering into a contract must have the legal capacity to do so. This means they must be of sound mind (sani di mente), of legal age (maggiorenni), and not under duress (costrizione) or undue influence (influenza indebita).

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Legal English – Peter’s Pills – Lesson 72 – Types of cases: Cornerstone and Milestone cases

Legal English for Notaries - By Federnotizie

Types of cases: Landmark cases

Transcript:

Hello! Last week we looked at landmark cases in the common law system and how they change the scenario and our perception of the law. Today we look at two other types of cases, namely Cornerstone cases and Milestone cases.

Cornerstone cases

A cornerstone (pietra angolare) is the stone that forms the base of a corner of a building or joins two walls together. It is the base on which you build the rest of the building.

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Legal English – Peter’s Pills – Lesson 71 – Types of cases: Landmark cases

Legal English for Notaries - By Federnotizie

Types of cases: Landmark cases

Transcript:

Hello! Today we look at landmark cases in the common law system.

Case law is also known as judge-made law or precedent and it refers to the body of law established through the decisions made by judges in individual cases. Sometimes we use special names to define certain types of cases and one such an example is “landmark case”.

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Legal English – Peter’s Pills – Lesson 70 – Specific performance

Legal English for Notaries - By Federnotizie

Specific performance

Transcript:

Hello! Today we look at specific performance.

This is a legal remedy available in contract law that requires a party to fulfil (adempiere) their obligations under a contract as agreed upon by both parties.

Specific performance (l’esecuzione in forma specifica) is a court-ordered remedy where a party is required to perform (adempiere) its contractual obligations as promised. It is typically sought (cercato/richiesto) when monetary damages (risarcimento) are insufficient to compensate for a breach of contract.

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Legal English – Peter’s Pills – Lesson 66 – Person Persons People

Legal English for Notaries - By Federnotizie

Person / Persons / People

Transcript:

Hello!

We all know that “person” is a singular word in English, but what is the plural? Is it “persons” or “people”, or both?

In General English the plural of “person” is “people”.

We say:

  • One person; two people;
  • There were 20 people at my party;
  • There are a lot of people in this room.

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Legal English – Peter’s Pills – Lesson 65 – Financial Reporting Words

Legal English for Notaries - By Federnotizie

Financial Reporting Words

Transcript:

Hello!

Today we look at some essential words related to financial reporting tools.

Financial Statements (bilancio):

  • Financial statements are comprehensive (completi) reports that summarise the financial performance and position of a company over a specific period. They provide valuable insights (informazioni; spunti) for various stakeholders, including investors, creditors, and management.

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